Chronic Radiation Exposure: Low-Dose Effects


Chelyabinsk: past and present

Chelyabinsk is the capital city of the Southern Urals Region, the economic and cultural center of Chelyabinsk oblast located within 2200 km/1500 mi east of Moscow with the population numbering 1,100,000.
Chelyabinsk first appeared on the country’s map as a military fortress in September, 1736, on the banks of the Miass River on the way from the Trans–Urals region to the town of Orenburg. In 1781 Chelyabinsk gained the status of a city, and since 1934 it has been the center of Chelyabinsk Oblast. The city is located along the Miass River on the eastern slope of the Urals mountains which form the natural border between Asia and Europe. This geographical position turned the former small fortress into a quickly developing city of merchants (it became the main transshipment point on the road to import tea from Asia to Russia) and metal manufactures. For over a hundred years, up to 1917, Chelyabinsk, had been a small and undistinguished district of the Orenburg Krai (region). It became better known in 1892 after the Samara–Zlatoust Railroad was set in operation which provided a much better connection to Moscow and other regions of Russia. Within a few years, Chelyabinsk turned out into one of the largest commercial centers of Russia and took one of the leading places in bread, butter, meat and tea trades. In the 1930s, Chelyabinsk became famous for the industrial giants that had been built in the city. Due to its natural resources, Chelyabinsk became a very important producer of steel, iron, coal, nickel, zink and other nonferrous metals, a center of heavy engineering industry during the Soviet era. By the 40-s, dozens of industrial enterprises had already been put into operation in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk, as a rear town, played an important role during the period of the Great Patriotic War. Many plants were evacuated from the western regions of the country to Chelyabinsk and continued their operations producing ammunition for the army.
Nowadays, Chelyabinsk is an important industrial, cultural and scientific center of the Southern Urals, a real megalopolis. There are a lot of institutions of higher education and scientific research centers in the city. The most important of them include the South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University, Agrotechnical Academy, Pedagogical University, Medical Academy, Institute for Culture and Arts, Academy of Physical Education, Urals Social and Economic Institute. An efficient and well-developed network of educational institutions of arts and culture is functioning in the region. There are 3 higher educational establishments of different kinds: Chelyabinsk State Institute of Arts and Culture, Magnitogorsk State Conservatory, Chelyabinsk Higher College of Music.
Welcome to Chelyabinsk, a city with a highly dynamic lifestyle!

Places of interest

Chelyabinsk is a rather pretty place, with its three small lakes, a river and a sizable patch of forest within the city (Yury Gagarin Park). Like most Russian cities, it has its share of factories and acres of boxy Soviet apartment buildings, but the center of the town is pleasant and compact, especially the pedestrian zone in the center of the city (Kirov St.). Vestiges of the 19th – early 20th century architecture can be seen in the old city encompassed by the contemporary Trud [Labor] Street, Communa Street, K. Marx Street, Sreet, Tsvilling Street, and Kirov Street.
In Chelyabinsk Oblast there are 29 museums. The biggest one is the Chelyabinsk Region History Museum possessing unique collections of rare books, collection of ethnographic materials, paintings and porcelain. The collection of the Ural Decorative-Applied Art Museum includes the most representative and interesting exposition of cast-iron moldings from Kasli; engravings on steel from Zlatoust are permanently exhibited in this Museum. This craft has gained great recognition.
Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery presents an Art museum of the universal classical type in terms of its character and the content of its collection and activity.
Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery
The gallery is opened from 10 till 17 every day except Monday
The collection of the Picture gallery comprises more than 11 thousand of pieces of painting, sculpture, drawing, decorative and applied arts and crafts, including house architectural wooden carving of old Chelyabinsk. Here, we can find the following collections: arts of Europe and the West, Russian art of Middle Ages, the art of the New and the Newest time, modern art. The Picture Gallery possesses unique collections of icon paintings, old printed and hand written books, plastics cast of brass and wooden sculpture, mainly collected in the Ural, reflect the variety of traditions of the Ancient Rus.
The building of the Picture Gallery represents an architectural model of art nouveau style. It was designed by the architect A.A.Fyodorov in 1912–1913 as a Trade House of brothers Yakushev in Sibirskaya Street, the city’s former main street. The exposition area of the museum is about 600 sq. meters. The Chelyabinsk Picture Gallery is situated in Trud [Labor] St., a 5 min walk from the Malachite.

Climate and weather

Chelyabinsk is situated in the moderate-continental climatic zone of Russia. The month of November is regarded as a transitional season from autumn to winter characterized by sharp temperature drops. In the second week of November the usual temperatures are from minus 2° to minus 8° Ñ. There may be a sharp wind, rain, sometimes even snow.

Cultural institutions and entertainment centers


Chelyabinsk boasts of 3 concert companies and 15 theatres. Amongst these there are well-recognized in Russia and abroad Chelyabinsk Academic Drama, Chelyabinsk Ballet and Opera Hall, Drama Chamber Theatre, Russian folk instruments orchestra “Malakhit” and the only one in the Urals Chamber Musik and Organ Hall which has one of the best organs in Europe, manufactured by the German Co “Oile”. Every year Chelyabinsk hosts the “Kamerata” festival of chamber theatrical companies and international festival of organ music which enjoy a great popularity. Every summer the Ilmensky tourist camp hosts festivals of songs composed and performed by authors.
Chelyabinsk Academic Drama Theater
Chelyabinsk Academic Drama Theater,
a theatrical company widely known in Russia and abroad
Opera and Ballet Theater
Opera and Ballet Theater,
existing since 1956 has become an important center of musical culture in the region. Its opera and ballet companies performed on tour in Italy, USA, Kuwait, Syria, Jordan.
Organ and Chamber Music Hall in Aloye Polye [Scarlet Field]
Organ and Chamber Music Hall in Aloye Polye [Scarlet Field],

Other useful information


The following 2 banks are situated close to the Malachite:
  • Uralvneshtorgbank,
    #143, Kirov St., phone: 266-34-01
    Open: 09:00 – 17:00
  • Alpha–Bank,
    #108, Kirov St., phone: 266-51-01; 265-92-24
    Open: 09:00 – 17:00

Downtown recreation centers, restaurants and shops

“Megapolis” cultural-entertainment center
  • Address: Sverdlovsky prospekt, #51à
  • Phones: 247-45-46, 264-60-32
  • Reservations: 247-45-45
  • Night club: 247-45-47
  • “Game Empire” bowling center and the “Abat-jour” restaurant-vinotheque: 263-02-73


Bad Gastein
  • Communa St., #87, phone: 265-93-92, 265-78-54
  • Open: 12:00 – 24:00
  • European cuisine
Irish pub Fox & Goose
  • Kirov St., #177, phone: 264-37-90
  • Open: 11:00 – 01:00
  • European cuisine, excellent wine carte
  • Timiryazev St., #30, phone: 266-05-07
  • Open: 12:00 – 24:00
  • European cuisine
Uralsky Pelmeni
  • Lenin prospekt, #66a, phone: 265-95-61
  • Open: 10:00 – 6:00
  • Russian cuisine
Tusse restaurant
  • Elkin St., #45a, phone: 247-46-18
  • Open: 12:00 – 00:00
  • European and Moroccan cuisine
  • Whisky-bar
  • Show-ballet and live music each night.

Shopping areas (in the vicinity of the Malachite)

Hypermarket “Shopping Center” (department store)
  • #64, Kaslinsky St., phone: 235-73-65
Youth Fashions (department store, souvenirs)
  • #104, Kirov St.
Kamenny Poyas [Stone Belt] souvenir shop
  • #165, Kirov St.
Ural Souvenirs (shop–parlour)
  • #64, Svoboda St.
Markstadt trade complex
  • #131, K. Marx St.

Map of Chelyabinsk downtown area

Map of Chelyabinsk downtown area
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